Dr. Sangharatna Godboley

Assistant Professor

Department of Computer Science And Engineering

National Institute of Technology, Warangal - 506004, Telangana, INDIA

: sanghu@nitw.ac.in

: 7013306805

Interests: Program Analysis; Software Testing; Security; Verification; Smart Contracts; Machine Learning

Degrees:

  • Postdoc   (CSE, NUS Singapore, 2020)

  • Ph. D.       (CSE, NIT Rourkela, 2017)

  • M. Tech.   (CSE, NIT Rourkela, 2013)

  • BE            (CSE, GEC Bilaspur, 2011)

Professional Memberships: 

  • IEEE Member

  • ACM Member

  • IEI Associate Member

Brief Bio:

         I did my M.Tech (2011-2013) and Ph.D. (2014-2017) from National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India. I worked as a Researcher (Aug 2017 - Jan 2018) in the School of Computing, National    University Singapore. I worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Feb 2018 to June 2020) in the School of Computing, National University Singapore. Currently, I am working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, India. Broadly, my area of interests are Program Analysis, Software Testing, Security, Verification, Smart Contracts. Specifically, I am working on Bounded Model Checking, Fuzzing, Dynamic Symbolic Execution (DSE), Mutation Testing, and Combinatorial Testing. I am interested in using program analysis techniques to solve the problems of software testing. I am focusing on Modified Condition / Decision Coverage (MC/DC), Short-circuit Multiple Condition Coverage (SC-MCC), and Relational Operator Replacement (ROR) Mutants. I am a team member of Tracer-X Research group (https://github.com/tracer-x).

Course Taught Previously

 

  • CS304 Software Engineering in Odd Sem 2020-2021, 2021-2022 for B.Tech (IIIrd Year).
  • CS307 CASE Tool Lab in Odd Sem 2020-2021, 2021-2022 for B.Tech (IIIrd Year).
  • CS7302 Software Testing in Odd Sem 2020-2021, 2021-2022 for MCA (IIIrd Year).
  • CS7304 Software Testing Lab in Odd Sem 2020-2021, 2021-2022 for MCA (IIIrd Year). 
  • CS477 Formal Methods in Software Engineering in Even Sem 2020-2021 for B.Tech (IVth Year).
  • CS485 Design Patterns in Even Sem 2020-2021 for B.Tech (IVth Year).
  • CS6355 Knowledge Engineering Lab in Even Sem 2020-2021 for MCA (IInd Year).
  • CS5154 Machine Learning Lab in Even Sem 2020-2021 for M.Tech-CSE (Ist Year).
  • CS6215 Advanced Topics in Program Analysis in Spring-2018,Spring-2019,Spring-,2020 for Ph.D., (As Co-Lecturer at Dept. of CSE, School of Computing (SOC), NUS Singapore)
  • CS5218 Principles and Practice of Program Analysis in Spring-2018,Spring-2019,Spring-,2020 for MS, (As Co-Lecturer at Dept. of CSE, School of Computing (SOC), NUS Singapore)

Publications

Journal Publications:

  1. Arpita Dutta, Saksham Sahai Srivastava, Sangharatna Godboley, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Combi-fl: Neural network and sbfl based fault localization using mutation analysis. Journal of Computer Languages, Elsevier, 66:101064, 2021. (SCIE, IF:1.271)
  2. Swadhin Kumar Barisal, Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, Bibhudatta Sahoo, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. MC/DC guided test sequence prioritization using firefly algorithm. Evol. Intell., Springer 14(1):105–118, 2021. (SCOPUS)
  3. Swadhin Kumar Barisal, Suvam Suvabrata Behera, Sangharatna Godboley, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Validating object-oriented software at design phase by achieving MC/DC. Int. J. Syst. Assur. Eng. Manag., Springer, 10(4):811–823, 2019.(SCOPUS
  4. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Rajib Mall. Scaling modified condition/decision coverage using distributed concolic testing for java programs. Comput. Stand. Interfaces, Elsevier, 59:61–86, 2018. (SCI, IF:2.487
  5. Arpita Dutta, Haripriya Kunsoth, Sangharatna Godboley, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Hirsa: computing hit ratio for soa-based applications through tcases. International Journal of Computational Systems Engineering, Inderscience, 4(1):23–34, 2018. 
  6. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Re duced energy consumption for MC/DC testing. Int. J. Bus. Inf. Syst., Inderscience, 28(4):447–467, 2018. (SCOPUS)
  7. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Rajib Mall. GECOJAP: A novel source-code preprocessing technique to improve code coverage. Comput. Stand. Interfaces, Elsevier, 55:27–46, 2018. (SCI, IF:2.487)
  8. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Rajib Mall. "J3 Model: A novel framework for improved modified condition/decision coverage analysis. Comput. Stand. Interfaces, Elsevier, 50:1–17, 2017. (SCI, IF:2.487)
  9. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Rajib Mall. "Green-J3 Model: a novel approach to measure energy consumption of modified condition/decision coverage using concolic testing." CSI Transactions on ICT, Springer, 5, no. 3 (2017): 217-233.
  10. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Green DRCT: measuring energy consumption of an enhanced branch coverage and modified condition/decision coverage technique. Int. J. Knowl. Discov. Bioinform., IGI Global, 7(1):14–29, 2017.
  11. Sangharatna Godboley, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, Avijit Das, and Rajib Mall. An improved distributed concolic testing approach. Softw. Pract. Exp., John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 47(2):311–342, 2017. (SCIE, IF:2.028
  12. Sangharatna Godboley, Subhrakanta Panda, Arpita Dutta, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. An automated analysis of the branch cover age and energy consumption using concolic testing. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Springer, 42(2):619–637, 2017. (SCIE, IF:2.468)  
  13. Srijan Das, Arpita Dutta, Saurav Sharma, and Sangharatna Godboley. A comparative analysis of a novel anomaly detection algorithm with neural networks. Int. J. Rough Sets Data Anal.,IGI Global, 4(4):1–16, 2017. 
  14. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, Avijit Das, and Rajib Mall. Making a concolic tester achieve increased MC/DC. Innov. Syst. Softw. Eng., 12(4):319–332, 2016.(SCOPUS
  15. Sangharatna Godboley and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Analysis of mc/dc coverage percentage and cyclometic complexity for structured c programs. International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences ISSN 2347 – 8527, 2(1), 2014. 
  16. Sangharatna Godboley and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Experimental study for the exclusive-nor code transformer. International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, 2(1):57–65, 2014. 
  17. Sangharatna Godboley, Avijit Das, Kuleshwar Sahu, Durga Prasad Moha patra, and Banshidhar Majhi. Measuring coverage percentage for c pro grams using code slicer and crest tool. International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, 3(3):64, 2013. 
  18. Sangharatna Godboley, Adepu Sridhar, Bhupendra Kharpuse, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Banshidhar Majhi. "Generation of branch coverage test data for simulink/stateflow models using crest tool." International Journal of Advanced Computer Research 3, no. 4, p: 222 2013.


Conference Publications:

  1. Sangharatna Godboley and Arpita Dutta, PRFL: Predicate Rank based Fault Localization, 18th IEEE India Council International Conference (INDICON) 2021, IIT Guwahati, India,  19-21 December, 2021. 
  2. Sangharatna Godboley, Golla Monika Rani, Arpita Dutta, KLEEMA: A DSE based Mutation Analyser, In POSTER track at 30th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA), 2021 (Core-A)
  3. Sangharatna Godboley, Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, Arpita Dutta, Toward Optimal MC/DC Test Case Generation. In POSTER track at 30th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA), 2021 (Core-A)
  4. Sangharatna Godboley, Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, Arpita Dutta, "Toward Optimal MC/DC Test Case Generation" Received all three ACM badges  **Artifact Available, Functional, and Reusable Badges** in Artifact Evaluation track at 30th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA), 2021 (Core-A
  5. Sangharatna Godboley, Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, and Arpita Duftta. Toward optimal mc/dc test case generation. In Cristian Cadar and Xiangyu Zhang, editors, ISSTA ’21: 30th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, Virtual Event, Denmark, July 11-17, 2021, pages 505–516. ACM, 2021 (Core-A)
  6. Sangharatna Godboley, Monika Rani Golla, Arpita Dutta, The KLEEMA Prototype. 2nd KLEE Workshop London, 2021.
  7. Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, Sangharatna Godboley, Xuan-Linh Ha. "TracerX: Dynamic Symbolic Execution with Interpolation", 2nd KLEE Workshop London, 2021 
  8. Sangharatna Godboley and Arpita Dutta. Dy-copeca: A dynamic version of MC/DC analyzer for C program. In Raian Ali, Hermann Kaindl, and Leszek A. Maciaszek, editors, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, ENASE 2021, Online Streaming, April 26-27, 2021, pages 197–204. SCITEPRESS, 2021. (Core-B)
  9. Arpita Dutta and Sangharatna Godboley. MSFL: A model for fault localization using mutation-spectra technique. In Adam Przybylek, Jakub Miler, Alexander Poth, and Andreas Riel, editors, Lean and Agile Software Development - 5th International Conference, LASD 2021, Virtual Event, January 23, 2021, Proceedings, volume 408 of Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, pages 156–173. Springer, 2021. (Best Paper Award)
  10. Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, Sangharatna Godboley, and Xuan-Linh Ha. Tracerx: Dynamic symbolic execution with interpolation. CoRR, abs/2012.00556, 2020. 
  11. Joxan Jaffar, Rasool Maghareh, Sangharatna Godboley, and Xuan-Linh Ha. Tracerx: Dynamic symbolic execution with interpolation (competition contribution). In Heike Wehrheim and Jordi Cabot, editors, Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering - 23rd International Conference, FASE 2020, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2020, Dublin, Ireland, April 25-30, 2020, Proceedings, volume 12076 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 530–534. Springer, 2020. (Core-B) 
  12. Joxan Jaffar, Sangharatna Godboley, and Rasool Maghareh. Optimal MC/DC test case generation. In Joanne M. Atlee, Tevfik Bultan, and Jon Whittle, editors, Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceedings, ICSE 2019, Montreal, QC, Canada, May 25-31, 2019, pages 288–289. IEEE / ACM, 2019. (Core-A*)
  13. Arpita Dutta, Shubham Kumar, and Sangharatna Godboley. Enhancing test cases generated by concolic testing. In Ravindra Naik, Santonu Sarkar, Thomas T. Hildebrandt, Atul Kumar, and Richa Sharma, editors, Proceedings of the 12th Innovations on Software Engineering Conference (formerly known as India Software Engineering Conference), ISEC 2019, Pune, India, February 14-16, 2019, pages 11:1–11:11. ACM, 2019. 
  14. Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. An efficient code coverage technique for uml statechart diagram. In 2017 14th IEEE India Council International Conference (INDICON), pages 1–6. IEEE, 2017. 
  15. Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, and DP Mohapatra. Measuring hit ratio metric for soa-based application using black-box testing. In Computational Intelligence in Data Mining, pages 591–599. Springer, Singapore, 2017. 
  16. Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, and DP Mohapatra. Memosa: Mea suring mc/dc of soa applications using concolic testing. In 2017 14th IEEE India Council International Conference (INDICON), pages 1–6. IEEE, 2017.
  17. Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, and DP Mohapatra. Measuring branch coverage for the soa based application using concolic testing. In International Conference on Advances in Computing and Data Sciences, pages 165–172. Springer, Singapore, 2016. 
  18. Arpita Dutta, Sangharatna Godboley, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Colt: Extending concolic testing to measure lcsaj coverage. In 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON), pages 373–378. IEEE, 2016. (Core-C)
  19. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Avijit Das, and Durga Prasad Mo hapatra. Measuring mc/dc at design phase using uml sequence diagram and concolic testing. In 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON), pages 1–6. IEEE, 2016. 
  20. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Java hct: An approach to increase MC/DC using hybrid concolic testing for java programs. In Maria Ganzha, Leszek A. Maciaszek, and Marcin Paprzycki, editors, Proceedings of the 2016 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, FedCSIS 2016, Gdansk, Poland, September 11-14, 2016, volume 8 of Annals of Computer Science and Information Systems, pages 1709–1713. IEEE, 2016. (Core-B)
  21. Sangharatna Godboley, Arpita Dutta, Bhagyashree Besra, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Green-jexj: A new tool to measure energy consumption of improved concolic testing. In 2015 international conference on green computing and internet of things (ICGCIoT), pages 36–41. IEEE, 2015. (Best Paper Award
  22. Sangharatna Godboley, Subhrakanta Panda, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. SMCDCT: A framework for automated MC/DC test case generation using distributed concolic testing. In Raja Natarajan, Gautam Barua, and Manas Ranjan Patra, editors, Distributed Computing and Internet Technology - 11th International Conference, ICDCIT 2015, Bhubaneswar, India, February 5-8, 2015. Proceedings, volume 8956 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 199–202. Springer, 2015.(Core-C)
  23. Sangharatna Godboley, Arun Sahani, and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. ABCE: A novel framework for improved branch coverage analysis. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Soft Computing and Software Engineering, SCSE’15, Berkeley, CA, USA, March 5-6, 2015, volume 62 of Procedia Computer Science, pages 266–273. Elsevier, 2015. 
  24. Kuleshwar Sahu, Sangharatna Godboley, and S. K. Jain. HCDLST: an indexing technique for current and recent-past sliding window spatio temporal data. In Durga Prasad Mohapatra and Srikanta Patnaik, editors, Intelligent Computing, Networking, and Informatics, Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking, and Informatics, ICACNI 2013, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, 12-14 June 2013, volume 243 of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pages 947– 954. Springer, 2013.
  25. Sangharatna Godboley and Durga Prasad Mohapatra. Time analysis of evaluating coverage percentage for c program using advanced program code transformer. In 7 th CSI International Conference on Software Engineering, pages 91–97. 7 th CSI CONSEG, 2013. 
  26. Sangharatna Godboley, GS Prashanth, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, and Bansidhar Majhi. Enhanced modified condition/decision coverage using exclusive-nor code transformer. In 2013 International Mutli-Conference on Automation, Computing, Communication, Control and Compressed Sensing (iMac4s), pages 524–531. IEEE, 2013. 
  27. Sangharatna Godboley, GS Prashanth, Durga Prasad Mohapatro, and Ban sidhar Majhi. Increase in modified condition/decision coverage using program code transformer. In 2013 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC), pages 1400–1407. IEEE, 2013.  

PHDs Supervised

PHDs Supervising/Supervised

1. Ms. Golla Monika Rani, Ph.D. Scholar, Title: Automatic Test Case Generation for Short-Circuit Multiple Condition Coverage (SC-MCC) (On-going

PGs Supervising/Supervised

1. Ms. Sindhu Nenavath, M.Tech Student, Title: Improved Combinatorial Testing. (Class of 2019-2021)  (Completed)

2. Mr. Anand Vijay, MCA Student, Title: Testing of Smart Contracts. (Class of 2018-2021) (Completed)

3. Ms. Kanika Gupta, M.Tech Student, Title: Towards Complete Fuzzing. (Class of 2020-2022) (On-going

 

UGs Supervising/Supervised

1. Mr. Jaswant Meghwal, Mr. Neeraj Kumar Gond, Mr. Nikhil Kumar, Title: CRG: Condition Rank Generator for Program Repair (Class of 2017-2021) (Completed)

2. Mr. Aryan Armo, Mr. Kapil Khandelwal, Mr. Sameer Jhariya, Title: Using MC/DC to eliminate the Duplicate Neurons in automatic DNN-driven Testing for Autonomous Cars (Class of 2017-2021) (Completed)

3. Mr. Palash Gupta, Mr. Rutwik S.D., Mr. Aniketh Satharla, Domain: Fault Localisation (Class of 2018-2022) (On-going)

4. Mr. Gaurav Singh, Mr. Pradyumn Atul Shukla, Mr. Rohit Kumar, Domain: Testing of Neural Network (Class of 2018-2022) (On-going)

Workshops/Conferences

List of Conferences/STCs / Workshops / Tutorials Organized

  1. Coordinator, Advance Technologies, Dept. of CSE,  RIT Rajaramnagar, Dept. of CSE, NIT Warangal, with E&ICT 2022. 
  2. Coordinator, Application of Machine Learning to Software Engineering, School of Computer Engineering, KIIT deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, Dept. of CSE, NIT Warangal, with E&ICT, 2021.
  3. Web Chair, 40th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER)-2022
  4. Virtual Conference Management Chair, 15th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference (ISEC-2022)
  5. Publicity Chair, International Conference on Advances in Distributed Computing and Machine Learning (ICADCML), 2022. 
  6. Publicity Chair, ACM COMPUTE-2021.
  7. Convener, Short Term Course on Software Testing Tools (STT), Dept. of CSE and CCE, NITW  2021.
  8. Coordinator, Python Boot Camp (2021)
  9. Virtual Conference Management Chair, 14th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference (ISEC-2021)
  10. Publicity Chair, 14th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference (ISEC-2021)
  11. Artifact Evaluation Committee, 42nd ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI 2021)
  12. Convener, 13th Recent Trends in Software Testing (RTST-2020)
  13. Co-Organizing Chair, Special Session Conference, Recent Advances in Program Analysis and Software Testing (RAPAST-2019) co-located with TENCON2019,  Kochi,  Kerala, 17th-20th Oct 2019

Projects

 NIL

Awards and Honors

  1.  BEST PAPER Award, Selected for Invited Journal Publication at LASD-2021.
  2. SANDEEP MOHAPATRA MEMORIAL MEDAL in 58th Technical Annual Session by The Institute of Engineers (India).
  3. IEEE BRAND AMBASSADOR title received dated 20th July 2018.
  4. Foreign Travel Award (INR 20000) from NITRAA and NITROAA for internship at NUS Singapore in 2017.
  5. Foreign Travel Award (INR 20000) from CICS, Chennai to visit Europe (Poland and Germany) in 2016.
  6. BEST PAPER Award from IEEE ICGCIoT-15 at Galgotia University, Noida, New Delhi, U.P in 2015.
  7. Awarded by "RAJYA PURUSKAR", SCOUT, K.V.SANGHATAN at Bhopal Region on 01/08/2004.


Additional Responsibility

Member BOS: 

          1. Board of Studies (BoS) Member , Department of Data Science, G H Raisoni Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nagpur. (From July 2021). 

 

Talks/Tutorials:

  1. Sangharatna Godboley, Verifying Reactive Systems via Symbolic Execution with Incremental Deepening, Software Engineering Research in India (SERI), IIT Ropar, 2021.
  2. Sangharatna Godboley,   A tutorial session on Tracer-X, Tutorial, 14th Innovations in Software Engineering Conference (ISEC), 2021.
  3. Sangharatna Godboley, Machine Learning for Fault Localization, GHRIBM Jalgaon, 2021
  4. Sangharatna Godboley, MEFL: A hybrid approach for Fault Localization using Mutation-Ensemble technique, IIEST Shibpur, 2021
  5. Sangharatna Godboley, Software Testing Methodologies, BIET Hyderabad, 2021
  6. Sangharatna Godboley, Introduction to Software Testing, GHRIET Nagpur, 2021
  7. Sangharatna Godboley, Graph Theory, Department of Data Science, GHRIET Nagpur, 2021 
  8. Sangharatna Godboley, Graph Theory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GHRIET Nagpur, 2021 
  9. Sangharatna Godboley, MEFL: A hybrid approach for Fault Localization using Mutation-Ensemble technique, Artificial Intelligence Applications in Software Engineering, E&ICT academy, NIT Warangal, 2021 
  10. Sangharatna Godboley, Protecting Software Vulnerabilities from Hackers Using Fuzzing, Artificial Intelligence Applications in Software Engineering, E&ICT academy, NIT Warangal, 2021
  11. Sangharatna Godboley, SQL in Python, Python for scientific computing, E&ICT academy, NIT Warangal, 2021
  12. Sangharatna Godboley,Testing of Smart Contracts, AICTE Training and learning (ATAL) academy sponsored Five-day Online Faculty Development Program on Emerging Techniques and Applications in IOT, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla 2021
  13. Sangharatna Godboley, Testing of Smart Contracts Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GIET University, Gunupur, E & ICT FDP on Convergence of AI, ML, and DS for Engineering Applications, 2021 
  14. Sangharatna Godboley, MEFL: A hybrid approach for Fault Localization using Mutation-Ensemble technique, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GIET University, Gunupur, E & ICT FDP on Convergence of AI, ML, and DS for Engineering Applications, 2021 
  15. Sangharatna Godboley, MEFL: A hybrid approach for Fault Localization using Mutation-Ensemble technique, E & ICT FDP on AI and ML, NITW, 2021
  16. Sangharatna Godboley,  Optimal MC/DC Test Case Generation, Software Engineering Research in India (SERI), IIIT Hyderabad, 2020.
  17. Sangharatna Godboley, Program Analysis and Testing, IEEE Computer Society Student Branch Chapter IIT Kharagpur, 2020.
  18. Sangharatna Godboley, Optimal MC/DC Test Case Generation, PLV seminar, SOC, NUS Singapore, 2020.
  19. Sangharatna Godboley, Program Analysis & Testing, St. John College of Engineering and Management, Palghar, 2020
  20. Sangharatna Godboley, Graphics Algorithms for Drawing Circle in any Quadrant along with ellipse generation, GHRIET Nagpur, 2020   
  21. Sangharatna Godboley, Graph Terminologies and Traversals, GHRIET Nagpur, 2020
  22. Sangharatna Godboley, Structural Design Pattern and its types, GHRIET Nagpur, 2020
  23. Sangharatna Godboley, Protecting Software Vulnerabilities from Hackers Using Fuzzing, TEQIP-3 Sponsored One Week National Workshop on Offensive and Defensive Aspects of Cyber Security, PMEC, 2020